The main aim of this study is to understand how Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are at much higher risk of developing celiac disease (CD) than the general population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and differences in clinical presentation of CD in T1D in different regions of the world.

This study is based on the Better control in Pediatric and Adolescent diabeteS: Working to crEate cEnTers of Reference (SWEET) database. There were 57 375 patients included in the study, aged ≤18 years from 54 SWEET centers. Only centers with screening for celiac disease were included. Regression models adjusted for age, diabetes duration, and gender and a fixed effect in the models for region was used. Diabetes duration, age at diabetes onset, and sex were presented as unadjusted results.

CD was present in 2652 subjects (4.5%), with different prevalence among regions: from 1.9% in Asia/Middle East to 6.9% in Australia/New Zealand. CD was observed more often among females. Comparing children with and without CD, characteristics for those with CD were younger age at diabetes onset.

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