For a study, researchers sought to evaluate the response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination as well as the risk of HBV infection in patients with celiac disease (CD). They conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database (2009–2014) to analyze the rate of HBV vaccination, immunological response, and HBV infection risk in CD and non-CD patients. The incidence of HBV infection was also estimated by a retrospective study of two cohorts: Mayo Clinic patients (1998–2021) and the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP; 2010–2020).

The rate of HBV infection in the United States was 0.33% (95% CI: 0.25–0.41), according to NHANES data. Of the 93 patients with CD, 46 (49%) were vaccinated for HBV, while 10,228 (53%) of the other 19,422 patients without CD were. Twenty-two (48%) vaccinated patients with CD had HBV immunity, whereas 4,405 (43.07%) vaccinated non-CD patients had HBV immunity, which was not significantly different. There were no cases of HBV infection in patients with CD based on NHANES data. During the research period, Mayo Clinic saw 3,568 patients with CD, while the REP database identified 3918 CD cases. Only 4 (0.11%) patients with CD at Mayo Clinic and nine (0.23%) REP patients were infected with HBV.

Patients with and without CD had the same rate of HBV vaccination and immunity. In patients with CD, there was no increased risk of HBV infection, as expected. The findings did not support screening and revaccination for HBV immunity in patients with CD in the United States.