Ophiorrhiza rugosa var.prostratais a traditional medicinal plant used by the indigenous and local tribes (Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya) of Bangladesh for the management of chest pain, body ache, and earache. However, the knowledge of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory potentials of this plant is scarce.
Therefore, we scrutinized the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of O. rugosa leaves along with its possiblemechanism(s) of action using chemical and heat-induced pain models.
O. rugosawasextracted using 100% ethanol (EEOR) followed by exploring phytochemicals and assessing acute toxicity. To determine anti-nociceptive potentials, chemical-induced (acetic acid and formalin) and heat-induced (hot plate and tail immersion) nociceptive models were followed. To investigate the possible involvement of opioid receptors during formalin, hot plate, and tail immersion tests, naltrexone was administered whereas methylene blue and glibenclamide were used to explore cGMP involvement and ATP-sensitive K channel pathways, respectively. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory potential was assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test model.Motor behavioursof EEOR were assessed by the open-field test. Finally, bioactive constituents (identified by GC-MS) from O. rugosa were subjected to molecular docking and ADME/t analysis to evaluate its potency and safety.
During chemical-induced and heat-induced pain models, EEOR exhibited significant and effective nociception suppression at all experimental doses (200 and 400 mg/kg). Also, the administration of naltrexone corroborated the association of opioid receptors with the anti-nociceptive activity by EEOR. Similarly, cGMP and ATP-sensitive K channel pathwayswere also found to be involved in the anti-nociceptive mechanism. Furthermore, significant and dose-dependent inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan was recorded for EEOR.Both doses of EEOR did not affect the animal’s locomotor capacity in the open-field test.Besides, in silico test identified the key compounds(loliolide, harman, squalene, vitamin E, and gamma-sitosterol) that inhibited some particular receptors regarding pain and inflammation.
This research exposes central and peripheral pain intervention as well as anti-inflammatory activity of O. rugosa. Also, the identified compounds from this plant support its activities by effectively inhibiting anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory receptors. Overall, these outcomes valorize the ethnomedicinal efficacy of O. rugosa in managing various painful conditions.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.