The purpose of this article is to review the many facets of central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB). The entities described are tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and its complications, spinal cord disorders, tuberculomas and co-infection with the human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). The latter has become a common problem worldwide becoming a more fulminant disease. The accuracy of the conventional and the modern molecular techniques for the diagnosis of TBM have a high specificity but a low to moderate sensitivity. Computerised tomographic scans and magnetic resonance imaging have many characteristic features which have vastly improved the diagnostic accuracy of CNS-TB. The recommended therapeutic regimens are an extrapolation of the regimen used for pulmonary TB, hence the optimal composition, dosage and duration of the therapy are not yet established. Multidrug resistant TB is emerging as a global threat and the delay in recognition of drug resistance combined with the lack of data on appropriate drug regimen adds to its high mortality.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.