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Central sensitization as a determinant of patients’ benefit from total hip and knee replacement.

Central sensitization as a determinant of patients’ benefit from total hip and knee replacement.
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Wylde V, Sayers A, Odutola A, Gooberman-Hill R, Dieppe P, Blom AW,


Wylde V, Sayers A, Odutola A, Gooberman-Hill R, Dieppe P, Blom AW, (click to view)

Wylde V, Sayers A, Odutola A, Gooberman-Hill R, Dieppe P, Blom AW,

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European journal of pain (London, England) 2016 08 2421(2) 357-365 doi 10.1002/ejp.929
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Discrepancies exist between osteoarthritic joint changes and pain severity before and after total hip (THR) and knee (TKR) replacement. This study investigated whether the interaction between pre-operative widespread hyperalgesia and severity of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) was associated with pain severity before and after joint replacement.

METHODS
Data were analysed from 232 patients receiving THR and 241 receiving TKR. Pain was assessed pre-operatively and at 12 months post-operatively using the WOMAC Pain Scale. Widespread hyperalgesia was assessed through forearm pressure pain thresholds (PPTs). Radiographic OA was evaluated using the Kellgren and Lawrence scheme. Statistical analysis was conducted using multilevel models, and adjusted for confounding variables.

RESULTS
Pre-operative: In knee patients, there was weak evidence that the effect of PPTs on pain severity was greater in patients with more severe OA (Grade 3 OA: ß = 0.96 vs. Grade 4: ß = 4.03), indicating that in these patients higher PPTs (less widespread hyperalgesia) was associated with less severe pain. In hip patients, the effect of PPTs on pain did not differ with radiographic OA (Grade 3 OA: ß = 3.95 vs. Grade 4: ß = 3.67). Post-operative: There was weak evidence that knee patients with less severe OA who had greater widespread hyperalgesia benefitted less from surgery (Grade 3 OA: ß = 2.28; 95% CI -1.69 to 6.25). Conversely, there was weak evidence that hip patients with more severe OA who had greater widespread hyperalgesia benefitted more from surgery (Grade 4 OA: ß = -2.92; 95% CI -6.58 to 0.74).

CONCLUSIONS
Widespread sensitization may be a determinant of how much patients benefit from joint replacement, but the effect varies by joint and severity of structural joint changes.

SIGNIFICANCE
Pre-operative widespread hyperalgesia and radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) severity may influence how much patients benefit from joint replacement. Patients undergoing knee replacement with less severe OA and greater widespread hyperalgesia benefitted less from surgery than patients with less hyperalgesia. Patients undergoing hip replacement with more severe OA and greater widespread hyperalgesia benefitted more than patients with less hyperalgesia.

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