Rapid and accurate simulation of cerebral aneurysm flow modifications by flow diverters (FDs) can help improving patient-specific intervention and predicting treatment outcome. However, when FD devices are explicitly represented in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, flow around the stent wires must be resolved, leading to high computational cost. Classic porous medium (PM) methods can reduce computational expense but cannot capture the inhomogeneous FD wire distribution once implanted on a cerebral artery and thus cannot accurately model the post-stenting aneurysmal flow. We report a novel approach that models the FD flow modification as a thin inhomogeneous porous medium (iPM). It improves over the classic PM approaches in two ways. First, the FD is more appropriately treated as a thin screen, which is more accurate than the classic 3D-PM-based Darcy-Forchheimer relation. Second, pressure drop is calculated cell-by-cell using the local FD geometric parameters across an inhomogeneous PM. We applied the iPM technique to simulating the post-stenting hemodynamics of three patient-specific aneurysms. To test its accuracy and speed, we compared the results from the iPM technique against CFD simulations with explicit FD devices. The iPM CFD ran 500% faster than the explicit CFD while achieving 94%-99% accuracy; thus, iPM is a promising clinical bedside modeling tool to assist endovascular interventions with FD and stents.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.