Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a microangiopathy resulting from an inherited or acquired severe deficiency in a disintegrin and metalloproteinase called ADAMTS-13. Acquired or immune TTP is classically described as a pentad of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), thrombocytopenia, fever, renal insufficiency and neurological symptoms. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura has been linked to stroke with the presence of hematologic abnormalities but whether or not severe ADAMTS-13 deficiency can cause stroke without hematological abnormalities is unknown.
As part of routine clinical care, we identified four cases of recurrent stroke attributed to severe deficiency of ADAMTS-13. We also conducted a search of a centralized electronic health record database including all inpatients and outpatient charts at a single academic medical center over the last ten years in an attempt to identify additional cases.
Here we present four cases of stroke and severe ADAMTS-13 deficiency where stroke episodes occurred without microangiopathic hemolytic anemia or severe thrombocytopenia. These cases show the need to consider severe ADAMTS-13 deficiency in the setting of recurrent cryptogenic stroke in young patients.
TTP directed therapies may be considered for patients with recurrent stroke who have extremely low ADAMTS-13 levels, even when platelet and hemoglobin values are normal.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.