Cerebral palsy, which occurs in two to three out of 1,000 live births, has multiple etiologies resulting in brain injury that affects movement, posture, and balance. The movement disorders associated with cerebral palsy are categorized as spasticity, dyskinesia, ataxia, or mixed/other. Spasticity is the most common movement disorder, occurring in 80% of children with cerebral palsy. Movement disorders of cerebral palsy can result in secondary problems, including hip pain or dislocation, balance problems, hand dysfunction, and equinus deformity. Diagnosis of cerebral palsy is primarily clinical, but magnetic resonance imaging can be helpful to confirm brain injury if there is no clear cause for the patient’s symptoms. Once cerebral palsy has been diagnosed, an instrument such as the Gross Motor Function Classification System can be used to evaluate severity and treatment response. Treatments for the movement disorders associated with cerebral palsy include intramuscular onabotulinumtoxinA, systemic and intrathecal muscle relaxants, selective dorsal rhizotomy, and physical and occupational therapies. Patients with cerebral palsy often also experience problems unrelated to movement that need to be managed into adulthood, including cognitive dysfunction, seizures, pressure ulcers, osteoporosis, behavioral or emotional problems, and speech and hearing impairment.
February 10, 2020
Comparison of high-resolution water perfused anorectal manometry with the THD® Anopress anal manometry: a prospective observational study.
January 30, 2020
February 17, 2020