Asthma is a major public health concern across the world, and epidemiological studies over the last few decades have consistently revealed a large increase in childhood asthma prevalence. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) found substantial regional variation in prevalence, as well as stronger links with morbidity and death in low-middle income nations (LMICs). According to the Global Burden of Disease, 420,000 people died from asthma in 2016, and while asthma prevalence is greater in high-income countries, the majority of asthma-related fatalities occur in low- and middle-income nations. The under-5 children death rate was used to assess a population’s overall health, and poor nations continue to account for more than 80% of all child fatalities worldwide, underscoring the importance of efforts to reduce disease burden in these areas. 

Asthma prevalence was greater in underdeveloped nations and among underprivileged people. Despite this, LMICs continued to confront several hurdles to adequate allergy and asthma care, resulting in considerable morbidity, possibly preventable asthma deaths, and economic implications. Only 26 nations (23%) had a national asthma strategy for children, according to a 2017 study of 112 countries participating in the Global Asthma Network, with a lower proportion in LMICs.

The increased incidence of asthma and high rates of asthma-related mortality in LMICs showed that worldwide efforts to improve asthma diagnosis and care were not reaching the most vulnerable people. Many sections of the world continued to struggle with a lack of adequate diagnosis, effective treatment choices, and access to specialized care.