A total of 40 participants (20 with paradoxical insomnia, 20 healthy controls) were included in the study. All participants were evaluated by somnologists and undergone a full-night polysomnography at sleep laboratory. In addition, psychiatric interview was made by the same psychiatrist, and questionnaires were performed to assess the dimensions of the personality such as the neuroticism or extroversion (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, EPQR-A); to evaluate the tendency to exaggerate somatic perceptions (Somatosensory Amplification Scale, SSAS), somatic parts of dissociation (Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire, SDQ-20), and somatization (Somatization Scale, SS); to measure participants’ feelings about their health and disease anxiety (Health Anxiety Inventory, HAI-18), and the level of uncontrollable and persistent anxiety (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, PSWQ); to investigate the tendency to ruminative thinking (Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire, RTSQ), alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20); and to define the presence and the severity of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI).
The duration and frequency of the sleep spindles were similar between two groups, while the density was significantly decreased in paradoxical insomnia. The duration of sleep spindles, on the other hand, showed positive correlations with the extroversion dimension scores of EPQR-A and PSWQ scores.
Sleep protective mechanisms are disturbed in paradoxical insomnia as shown by the lower density of sleep spindles. In addition, fast spindle activity is associated with the personality traits, characterized by an increase in the expression of feelings and the level of anxiety.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.