BACKGROUND Dietary protein restriction is recommended for patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aimed to investigate the changes in the intestinal microbiota due to different dietary regimens in patients with stage 5 CKD and the effects of human to rat fecal microbiota transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Second-generation high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the amplifiers in the 16S rRNA V4 region in the intestinal microbiota of patients with stage 5 CKD and healthy individuals. The intestinal microbiota of patients with stage 5 CKD in the low-protein group and the healthy individual group was transferred by human to rat fecal microbiota transplantation using Sprague-Dawley rats. Data underwent meta-analysis using Meta-Stat. RESULTS Patients with CKD on a very low-protein diet showed an increase in intestinal Escherichia, Shigella, and Klebsiella, a decrease in Blautia, heat map analysis showed that Christensenellaceae R-7 group rs1 were significantly increased, and MetaStat analysis showed that Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Mitsuokella were significantly increased. Following human to rat fecal microbiota transplantation from patients with stage 5 CKD, the profile of the rat intestinal microbiota became similar to the human donors. The weight of the rats fed a very low-protein diet after fecal microbiota transplantation significantly decreased after six weeks compared with normal rats and rats that received normal fecal microbiota transplantation. CONCLUSIONS Patients with stage 5 CKD on a very low-protein diet showed changes in the intestinal microbiota that could be transferred from humans to rats by fecal microbiota transplantation.