In this study, we describe the characteristics and outcomes of pediatric necrotizing pneumonia in the United States.
A retrospective analysis of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project 2016 Kids Inpatient Database was performed. The Kids Inpatient Database is a large deidentified hospital discharge database of pediatric patients in the United States.
The database was filtered using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition code J85.0 to identify necrotizing pneumonia in children 28 days to 20 years old.
Children with necrotizing pneumonia with and without bacterial isolation and with and without complex chronic conditions were compared. Sample weighting was employed to produce national estimates.
Of the 2,296,220 discharges, 746 patients had necrotizing pneumonia (prevalence: 3.2/10,000 discharges). In patients with necrotizing pneumonia, 46.6% required chest tubes, 6.1% underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, and 27.6% were mechanically ventilated. Pneumothorax was identified in 16.7% and pyothorax in 27.4%. The overall mortality rate was 4.1% (n = 31). Bacterial isolation was documented in 40.9%. The leading organisms identified in patients without a complex chronic condition were Streptococcus pneumoniae (12.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (9.2%) and in patients with a complex chronic condition were S. aureus (13.4%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.8%). Patients with bacterial isolation were significantly more likely to develop pneumothorax (odds ratio, 2.6; CI, 1.6-4.2) or septic shock (odds ratio, 3.2; CI, 1.9-5.4) and require a chest tube (odds ratio, 2.5; CI, 1.7-3.5) or mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 2.3; CI, 1.5-3.3) than patients without bacterial isolation.
Bacterial etiology of necrotizing pneumonia in children varied with the presence or absence of a complex chronic condition. Bacterial isolation is associated with increased invasive procedures and complications. The mortality rate is higher in children with complex chronic conditions. This study provides national data on necrotizing pneumonia among hospitalized children.

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