Despite the decrease in morbidity due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Romania, it remains a significant risk factor for tuberculosis.
Analyzing the characteristics of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in Maros county, Romania, during 2014-2020.
Retrospective data processing of the study group and comparing with internationally reported data (similar group, same geographic region, during 2004-2013).
The study includes 40 patients with tuberculosis-HIV co-infection: 24 men, 16 women, 22 from rural areas, 22 smokers, 20 alcohol and 4 drug users. Most of them had poor living conditions. 30 patients were in the 26-40-year-old age group, significantly influencing their personal development. 25 patients were diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We identified 28 pulmonary tuberculosis cases, 1 extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and 11 mixed forms. In 13 cases, the pathogen was not identified; the diagnosis was based on probability criteria (epidemiology, clinical, and imaging methods). The number of hepatitis, parasitological, and other opportunistic infections decreased significantly, but the frequency of anemia, neurological and respiratory diseases increased. The incidence of drug-resistant forms and the death rate also decreased significantly.
Due to the poor living conditions, these patients are not adherent to examinations and treatment. Tuberculosis-HIV co-infection is more likely to cause complications, drug resistance, and high mortality rate. For early diagnosis, screening all patients with tuberculosis for HIV infection and all HIV-infected patients for tuberculosis is crucial.
Prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of both diseases must be increased by intensifying the fight against poverty and promoting better education. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(1): 19-28.