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Characterization of Paroxysmal Gluten-Sensitive Dyskinesia in Border Terriers Using Serological Markers.

Characterization of Paroxysmal Gluten-Sensitive Dyskinesia in Border Terriers Using Serological Markers.
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Lowrie M, Garden OA, Hadjivassiliou M, Sanders DS, Powell R, Garosi L,


Lowrie M, Garden OA, Hadjivassiliou M, Sanders DS, Powell R, Garosi L, (click to view)

Lowrie M, Garden OA, Hadjivassiliou M, Sanders DS, Powell R, Garosi L,

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Journal of veterinary internal medicine 2018 02 09() doi 10.1111/jvim.15038
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Paroxysmal gluten-sensitive dyskinesia (PGSD) in border terriers (BTs) results from an immunologic response directed against transglutaminase (TG)2 and gliadin. Recent evidence suggests that PGSD is only one aspect of a range of possible manifestations of gluten sensitivity in the breed.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES
Gluten sensitivity in BTs is a heterogeneous disease process with a diverse clinical spectrum; to characterize the phenotype of PGSD using TG2 and gliadin autoantibodies as diagnostic markers.

ANIMALS
One hundred twenty-eight client-owned BTs with various disorders.

METHODS
Prospective study. BTs with paroxysmal episodes and a normal interictal examination were phenotyped using footage of a representative episode and assigned to 3 groups: idiopathic epilepsy (IE), paroxysmal dyskinesia (PD), or other. Owners of each dog completed a questionnaire to obtain information regarding clinical signs. Healthy BTs formed a control group. Serum antibodies against TG2 and AGA were measured in all dogs.

RESULTS
One hundred twenty-eight BTs were enrolled; 45 with PD, 28 with IE, 35 with other conditions, and 20 controls. Three overlapping phenotypes were identified; PD, signs suggestive of gastrointestinal disease, and dermatopathy. AGA-IgG concentrations were increased in PD (xx ± YY) compared with IE (P = 0.012), controls (P < 0.0001) and other (P = 0.018) conditions. Anti-canine TG2-IgA concentrations were increased in PD, compared with IE (P < 0.0001), controls (P < 0.0001) and other (P = 0.012) conditions. Serological markers are highly specific for PGSD but lack sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS
PGSD appears part of a syndrome of gluten intolerance consisting of episodes of transient dyskinesia, signs suggestive of gastrointestinal disease, and dermatological hypersensitivity.

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