Journal of veterinary internal medicine 2018 02 09() doi 10.1111/jvim.15038
Paroxysmal gluten-sensitive dyskinesia (PGSD) in border terriers (BTs) results from an immunologic response directed against transglutaminase (TG)2 and gliadin. Recent evidence suggests that PGSD is only one aspect of a range of possible manifestations of gluten sensitivity in the breed.
Gluten sensitivity in BTs is a heterogeneous disease process with a diverse clinical spectrum; to characterize the phenotype of PGSD using TG2 and gliadin autoantibodies as diagnostic markers.
One hundred twenty-eight client-owned BTs with various disorders.
Prospective study. BTs with paroxysmal episodes and a normal interictal examination were phenotyped using footage of a representative episode and assigned to 3 groups: idiopathic epilepsy (IE), paroxysmal dyskinesia (PD), or other. Owners of each dog completed a questionnaire to obtain information regarding clinical signs. Healthy BTs formed a control group. Serum antibodies against TG2 and AGA were measured in all dogs.
One hundred twenty-eight BTs were enrolled; 45 with PD, 28 with IE, 35 with other conditions, and 20 controls. Three overlapping phenotypes were identified; PD, signs suggestive of gastrointestinal disease, and dermatopathy. AGA-IgG concentrations were increased in PD (xx ± YY) compared with IE (P = 0.012), controls (P < 0.0001) and other (P = 0.018) conditions. Anti-canine TG2-IgA concentrations were increased in PD, compared with IE (P < 0.0001), controls (P < 0.0001) and other (P = 0.012) conditions. Serological markers are highly specific for PGSD but lack sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS
PGSD appears part of a syndrome of gluten intolerance consisting of episodes of transient dyskinesia, signs suggestive of gastrointestinal disease, and dermatological hypersensitivity.