Cancer immunology research 2017 10 275(12) 1133-1140 doi 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-17-0208
Thyroid disorders have emerged as one of the most common immune-related adverse events associated with anti-PD-1 monotherapy or combination anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 therapy. This study characterizes and compares the evolution of monotherapy and combination therapy-related thyroid disorders. We analyzed the dynamic evolution of thyroid disorders in 45 patients who developed thyroid disorders following treatment with either anti-PD-1 monotherapy or anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 combination therapy. The patients presented with thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism as the initial presentation of their thyroid disorder. Thyrotoxicosis as the initial presentation occurred in the majority of patients (93% and 56% of the patients receiving combination therapy and monotherapy, respectively). The onset pattern of the thyroid disorder was significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.01). Subsequently, 76% and 90% of the patients with thyrotoxicosis evolved to develop hypothyroidism in the combination and monotherapy groups, respectively. In the combination therapy and monotherapy groups, the median times to onset of thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism after first treatment were 21 and 63 days, and 31 and 68 days, respectively. The median time for transition from thyrotoxicosis to hypothyroidism was 42 days in both groups. Our study demonstrates that most thyroid disorders induced by either anti-PD-1 or combination anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 therapy are thyroiditis. The time to onset of thyrotoxicosis after treatment initiation and evolution of thyrotoxicosis to hypothyroidism was short, emphasizing the importance of close monitoring of thyroid function in these patients. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(12); 1133-40. ©2017 AACR.