Increasing cancer incidence among children alongside improved treatments has resulted in a growing number of pediatric cancer survivors. Despite childhood cancer survivors’ exposure to various factors that compromise kidney function, few studies have investigated the association between childhood cancer and future kidney disease.
To assess the risk of ESKD among childhood cancer survivors, we conducted a nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort study that encompassed all Israeli adolescents evaluated for mandatory military service from 1967 to 1997. After obtaining detailed histories, we divided the cohort into three groups: participants without a history of tumors, those with a history of a benign tumor (nonmalignant tumor with functional impairment), and those with a history of malignancy (excluding kidney cancer). This database was linked to the Israeli ESKD registry to identify incident ESKD cases. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of ESKD.
Of the 1,468,600 participants in the cohort, 1,444,345 had no history of tumors, 23,282 had a history of a benign tumor, and 973 had a history of malignancy. During a mean follow-up of 30.3 years, 2416 (0.2%) participants without a history of tumors developed ESKD. Although a history of benign tumors was not associated with an increased ESKD risk, participants with a history of malignancy exhibited a substantially elevated risk for ESKD compared with participants lacking a history of tumors, after controlling for age, sex, enrollment period, and paternal origin (adjusted HR, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 7.7).
Childhood cancer is associated with an increased risk for ESKD, suggesting the need for tighter and longer nephrological follow-up.

Copyright © 2021 by the American Society of Nephrology.