Molecular genetics & genomic medicine 2018 02 13() doi 10.1002/mgg3.373
Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited cancer predisposition syndrome associated with an increased risk of spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) and renal cell carcinoma in the adult population. Recent studies suggest that BHD accounts for up to 10% of all SP in adults and BHD in children with SP have been reported.
To explore to what extent BHD is the cause of childhood pneumothorax, we studied a Danish BHD cohort consisting of 109 cases from 22 families. Clinical data was gathered by review of medical records. A systematic literature search concerning childhood and adolescence pneumothorax in BHD was performed and identified publications reviewed.
In our cohort, three of 109 BHD cases experienced childhood pneumothorax, corresponding to a prevalence of 3%. Reviewing the literature, data regarding more than 800 BHD cases were covered. Only seven previously published cases of childhood pneumothorax in BHD were identified.
Our findings suggest that BHD is likely the cause of a larger subset of childhood pneumothoraces than hitherto recognized. Awareness of BHD as a cause of childhood pneumothorax needs to be raised to provide patients and relatives with the possibility of specialized management of SP and regular renal cancer surveillance.