Indian journal of pediatrics 2017 07 15() doi 10.1007/s12098-017-2413-2
To study the etiology and burden of comorbidities across stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Children, 2-16 y of age with CKD Stages II- IV were recruited over 12 mo. The etiology, clinical presentation and severity of complications were studied.
Among 78 children [Stage II (n = 21), Stage III (n = 26), Stage IV (n = 31)], congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) was the commonest etiology and 28 were newly diagnosed in Stage III /IV. High prevalence of comorbidities was observed with growth retardation (65%), hypertension (59%), hyperphosphatemia (32%), vitamin D deficiency (92%), dyslipidemia (64%), left ventricular hypertrophy (45%) and hyperparathyroidism (56%). While most comorbidities correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate and severity of CKD, hypertension, vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular morbidity were prevalent even in early stages.
CAKUT was the commonest cause of CKD. Late detection and high prevalence of comorbidities even in early stages of CKD were observed.