Myopia, a common ophthalmic disorder, places a high economic burden on individuals and society. Genetic and environmental factors influence myopia progression; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unelucidated. This paper reviews recent advances in circadian rhythm, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), and dopamine (DA) signalling in myopia and proposes the hypothesis of a circadian rhythm brain retinal circuit in myopia progression. The search of relevant English articles was conducted in the PubMed databases until June 2023. Based on the search, emerging evidence indicated that circadian rhythm was associated with myopia, including circadian genes Bmal1, Cycle, and Per. In both humans and animals, the ocular morphology and physiology show rhythmic oscillations. Theoretically, such ocular rhythms are regulated locally and indirectly via the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which receives signal from the ipRGCs. Compared with the conventional retinal ganglion cells, ipRGCs can sense the presence of light because of specific expression of melanopsin. Light, together with ipRGCs and DA signalling, plays a crucial role in both circadian rhythm and myopia. In summary, regarding myopia progression, a circadian rhythm brain retinal circuit involving ipRGCs and DA signalling has not been well established. However, based on the relationship between circadian rhythm, ipRGCs, and DA signalling in myopia, we hypothesised a circadian rhythm brain retinal circuit.© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.