Scientific reports 2018 04 048(1) 5671 doi 10.1038/s41598-018-23848-8
Although inflammation is central to gallbladder cancer (GBC) development and proliferation, no study has systematically investigated circulating inflammatory proteins and patient survival. We aimed to examine whether the circulating levels of inflammatory proteins is associated with all-cause mortality among such patients. We recruited 134 patients with newly diagnosed with GBC from 1997 to 2001 in a population-based study in Shanghai and an independent set of 35 patients from 2012 to 2013 in Chile. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for covariates were used to evaluate the hazard ratios (HRs) for death by serum levels of 49 inflammatory proteins (quartiles). Of 49 evaluable proteins, eight were significantly associated with overall survival. Seven were associated with a poorer survival, while the highest levels of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) were associated with an increase in survival (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.14, 0.47). No substantial difference in the magnitude of the association was observed between early- and late-stages of GBC. Of seven proteins, five were validated in the patients from Chile. Reducing inflammation and targeting pathways associated with increased survival might improve GBC outcomes. The potential for using a TRAIL-related anticancer drug for GBC treatment merits further investigation.