Scientific reports 2018 02 228(1) 3496 doi 10.1038/s41598-018-21847-3
Chronic hepatitis B infection remains a serious public health issue worldwide. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is commonly reported in patients receiving anticancer therapy, immunosuppressive therapy, or organ and tissue transplantation. However, the precise mechanisms underlying chemotherapeutic agent-related HBV reactivation remain unclear. Here, we report that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) plays a central role in cisplatin-induced HBV transcription and replication. First, cisplatin treatment upregulated the expression levels of PGC-1α and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF-4α) in both HBV-replicating cells and an HBV-transgenic mouse model. PGC-1α coactivates with HNF-4α, which interacts with a core promoter and enhancer II region of HBV genome, thereby promoting HBV production. In contrast, knockdown of PGC-1α and HNF-4α by RNA interference in hepatoma cells reversed HBV activation in response to cisplatin. Additionally, PGC-1α upregulation depended on cisplatin-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We further observed that the recruitment of cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein plays a crucial role for PGC-1α transcriptional activation in cisplatin-treated cells. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of ER stress impaired PGC-1α upregulation and HBV production induced by cisplatin treatment. These findings demonstrate novel molecular mechanisms indicating that ER stress-PGC1α signaling pathway plays a critical role in cisplatin-evoked HBV reactivation.