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Classification of Drug Hypersensitivity into Allergic, p-i, and Pseudo-Allergic Forms.

Classification of Drug Hypersensitivity into Allergic, p-i, and Pseudo-Allergic Forms.
Author Information (click to view)

Pichler WJ, Hausmann O,


Pichler WJ, Hausmann O, (click to view)

Pichler WJ, Hausmann O,

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International archives of allergy and immunology 2016 12 14171(3-4) 166-179
Abstract

Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) are clinically and functionally heterogeneous. Different subclassifications based on timing of symptom appearance or type of immune mechanism have been proposed. Here, we show that the mode of action of drugs leading to immune/inflammatory cell stimulation is a further decisive factor in understanding and managing DHR. Three mechanisms can be delineated: (a) some drugs have or gain the ability to bind covalently to proteins, form new antigens, and thus elicit immune reactions to hapten-carrier complexes (allergic/immune reaction); (b) a substantial part of immune-mediated DHR is due to a typical off-target activity of drugs on immune receptors like HLA and TCR (pharmacological interaction with immune receptors, p-i reactions); such p-i reactions are linked to severe DHR; and (c) symptoms of DHR can also appear if the drug stimulates or inhibits receptors or enzymes of inflammatory cells (pseudo-allergy). These three distinct ways of stimulations of immune or inflammatory cells differ substantially in clinical manifestations, time of appearance, dose dependence, predictability, and cross-reactivity, and thus need to be differentiated.

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