Therapeutics and clinical risk management 2017 05 0413() 613-622 doi 10.2147/TCRM.S126301
Recent years have seen a shift in perspective on Turner syndrome, as it is no longer considered a significant disability due to therapeutic advances. The delay of diagnosis and the underdiagnosis are common in Turner syndrome, especially because of the great phenotypic variability and lack of firm diagnostic criteria.
Our first aim was to assess the clinical and the cytogenetic characteristics and growth rate in growth hormone (GH)-treated patients as compared to those with spontaneous growth. The second aim was to analyze the Y chromosomal sequences.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We analyzed 45 patients diagnosed with Turner syndrome in Genetic Pathology Centre of Cluj Emergency Children’s Hospital. We carried out a study of the clinical features, the correlations between the karyotype and the phenotype, and we also made a research of Y chromosome sequences.
The average age at diagnosis was 8.9±5.4 years. A significant association was observed between the number of external phenotypical abnormalities and internal malformations (r=0.45), particularly the cardiovascular ones (r=0.44). Patients treated with GH showed improvement in growth rate, with final stature significantly better than in untreated patients; benefits following treatment were greater if diagnosis was made before the age of 5 years. Thirteen percent of patients experienced spontaneous and complete puberty, whereas 30% experienced incomplete puberty. Patients with the 45,X genotype had a greater stature deficit and a higher incidence of cardiac malformations, compared with patients with 45,X/46,XX mosaic karyotype. Y chromosome sequences were found in only one patient, who subsequently underwent gonadectomy.
The importance of this study resides, to the best of our knowledge, in the fact that the largest group of patients in Romania was analyzed and assessed. To draw firm conclusions on the most valuable clinical indicators for Turner syndrome diagnosis in clinical practice, studies on large groups of patients should be conducted.