Jornal de pediatria 2017 11 28() pii S0021-7557(17)30244-9
Hemoglobin SC is the second most common variant of sickle-cell disease worldwide, after hemoglobin SS. The objectives of the study were to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of hemoglobin SC disease in children from a newborn screening program and treated at a blood donor center.
This study assessed a cohort of 461 infants born between 01/01/1999 and 12/31/2012 and followed-up until 12/31/2014. Clinical events were expressed as rates for 100 patient-years, with 95% confidence intervals. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were created.
The median age of patients was 9.2 years; 47.5% were female. Mean values of blood tests were: hemoglobin, 10.5g/dL; reticulocytes, 3.4%; white blood cells, 11.24×109/L; platelets, 337.1×109/L; and fetal hemoglobin, 6.3%. Clinical events: acute splenic sequestration in 14.8%, blood transfusion 23.4%, overt stroke in 0.2%. The incidence of painful vaso-occlusive episodes was 51 (48.9-53.4) per 100 patient-years and that of infections, 62.2 episodes (59.8-64.8) per 100 patient-years. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (n=71) was normal given the current reference values for SS patients. Hydroxyurea was given to ten children, all of whom improvement of painful crises. Retinopathy was observed in 20.3% of 59 children who underwent ophthalmoscopy. Avascular necrosis was detected in seven of 12 patients evaluated, predominantly in the left femur. Echocardiogram compatible with pulmonary hypertension was recorded in 4.6% of 130 children, with an estimated average systolic pulmonary artery pressure of 33.5mmHg. The mortality rate from all causes was 4.3%.
Clinical severity is variable in SC hemoglobinopathy. Several children have severe manifestations similar to those with SS disease.