The observational, real-world evidence FLIEDER study aimed to describe patient clinical characteristics and investigate clinical outcomes in non-diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) using data collected from routine clinical practice in the United States.
Between 1 January, 2008-31 December, 2018, individuals aged ≥ 18 years, with non-diabetic, stage 3-4 CKD were indexed in the Optum Clinformatics Data Mart US healthcare claims database using International Classification of Diseases-9/10 codes for CKD or by laboratory values (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m). The primary outcomes were hospitalization for heart failure, a composite kidney outcome of end-stage kidney disease/kidney failure/need for dialysis and worsening of CKD stage from baseline. The effects of the intercurrent events of a sustained post-baseline decline in eGFR ≥ 30%, ≥ 40%, and ≥ 57% on the subsequent risk of the primary outcomes were also assessed.
In the main study cohort (N = 504,924), median age was 75.0 years, and 60.5% were female. Most patients (94.7%) had stage 3 CKD at index. Incidence rates for hospitalization for heart failure, the composite kidney outcome, and worsening of CKD stage from baseline were 4.0, 10.3, and 4.4 events/100 patient-years, respectively. The intercurrent event analysis demonstrated that a relative decline in kidney function from baseline significantly increased the risk of cardiorenal events.
This real-world study highlights that patients with non-diabetic CKD are at high risk of serious adverse clinical outcomes, and that this risk is amplified in patients who experienced greater post-baseline eGFR decline.

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