AAVs (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides) are rare systemic autoimmune disorders with limited occurrences in Latin America. For a study, researchers sought to assess AAV as it was examined at a high-complexity hospital in southern Colombia, with a focus on severe types. A review of 67 patients’ medical records was conducted, and data were gathered from computerized registries. Between 2011 and 2019, moderate and severe AAVs were characterized as the existence of life-threatening complications, adverse Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score outcomes, and hospitalization needs at the time of diagnosis and at the last follow-up. The clinical symptoms, treatment, and results were all assessed. The subtypes of AAV were compared.

A total of 67 instances were included in the study. The majority (n=44, 65.67%) were female, with a median age of 52 (40–64). Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) was the most common, accounting for 42 patients (62.68%), followed by microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and eosinophilic GPA, which each included 15 patients (22.38%) and 10 patients (14.92%). Pneumonia was reported by 44 patients (65.67%). With 21 (12–25) points, the highest Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score belonged to MPA. Throughout the course of the disease, 15 patients (22.4%) were hospitalized to the critical care unit, with 10 having GPA. MPA had the longest mechanical ventilation stay and duration. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide were the primary therapies, and the primary endpoint was end-stage renal disease.

The majority of cases in the AAV cohort correlated to GPA, with pulmonary symptoms being the most prevalent. Microscopic polyangiitis was the more severe form, with poorer clinical features and critical care unit needs.