Classification and management of acquired concomitant esotropia is controversial. We sought to establish a simple clinical classification in order to determine in which cases further investigations in search of underlying pathologies are necessary.
Observational retrospective study of the files of 175 consecutive patients examined in our unit between 2009 and 2018 for acute convergent strabismus. One hundred and nine patients were selected, after exclusion of infantile, incomitant, or mechanical esotropias, residual esotropias, and patients examined on a single occasion. All patients received a complete orthoptic and ophthalmological examination. We grouped the patients according to their common characteristics.
We established the following categories: 1. Acute esotropia of large angle (20 to 45 prism diopters [PD]), accompanied by mild hyperopia (mean 1.2 D) in children (n = 16) and moderate myopia (mean 3.7 D) in adolescents and adults (n = 13). 2. Decompensated micro-esotropia, which is distinguished from the other categories by the presence of abnormal retinal correspondence (n = 33). 3. Decompensated esophoria, with intermittent deviations of 5 to 30 PD, esotropia being compensated part of the time (n = 25). 4. Esotropia present only at a distance in patients over 50 years of age (n = 20). 5. Small-angle esotropia (< 15 PD) greater at a distance, associated with oculomotor cerebellar syndrome (n = 2). Complementary examinations (MRI or CT scan) were performed on 21 patients, leading to the discovery of a posterior fossa astrocytoma in a 4-year-old boy.
The recognition of decompensated micro-esotropia and esophoria, as well as distance esotropia of the elderly, avoids unnecessary additional investigations, which are indicated in any type of acute comitant strabismus if associated with any neurological sign or symptom (e.g., headaches, nausea, vertigo, imbalance, poor coordination, nystagmus, or papilledema). In the absence of neurological findings, there is no consensus about the indication of neuroimaging in large-angle acquired concomitant esotropia, but long-term follow-up of patients that do not undergo neuroimaging is strongly recommended in order to identify later occurring intracranial diseases. This is of particular importance with children.

Thieme. All rights reserved.