Decidualization is characterized by a series of genetic, metabolic, morphological, biochemical, vascular and immune changes occurring in the endometrial stroma in response to the implanting embryo or even before conception and involves the stromal cells of the endometrium. It is a fundamental reproductive event occurring in mammalian species with hemochorial placentation. A growing body of experimental and clinical evidence strongly suggests that defective or disrupted decidualization contributes to the establishment of an inappropriate maternal-fetal interface. This has relevant clinical consequences, ranging from recurrent implantation failure and recurrent pregnancy loss in early pregnancy to several significant complications of advanced gestation. Moreover, recent evidence indicates that selected diseases of the endometrium, such as chronic endometritis and endometriosis, can have a detrimental impact on the decidualization response in the endometrium and may help explain some aspects of the reduced reproductive outcome associated with these conditions. Further research efforts are needed to fully understand the biomolecular mechanisms ans events underlying an abnormal decidualization response. This will permit the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies aimed to improve the likelihood of achieveing a successful pregnancy.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.