Dogs with sinonasal tumor can develop keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) after radiation therapy (RT). In humans, the incidence of xerophtalmia is associated with the mean radiation dose received by the ipsilateral lacrimal gland (LG).
The eyes receiving a higher mean LG dose are more likely to develop KCS. The aim of the study was to determine a starting threshold dose to use as dose constraint for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
Dogs with nasal tumors treated with RT between August 2013 and December 2016.
Case control retrospective study of dogs with sinonasal tumor treated with 42 Gray (Gy) in 10 fractions using IMRT. Dogs were included if development of KCS after RT was documented (cases) or adequate follow-up information with Schirmer tear test (STT) result for ≥6 months after RT was available (controls). Lacrimal glands were contoured and dose distribution was calculated using the original treatment plan to determine prescribed doses to LGs.
Twenty-five dogs were treated with RT and 5 dogs (20%) developed KCS. Fifteen dogs met the inclusion criteria including 5 unilateral KCS and 10 control dogs, resulting in 5 KCS eyes and 25 control eyes. KCS developed at a median of 111 days (84-122) after 1st RT. The mean LG dose reached using a 4.2 Gy per fraction was 33.08 Gy (range: 23.75-42.33) for KCS eyes and 10.33 Gy (1.8-24.77) for control eyes (P < .001). The minimum LG mean dose for developing KCS was 23.75 Gy. No eyes that received a mean LG dose <20 Gy developed KCS versus 5/7 (71%) developed with >20 Gy.
Contouring and applying a dose constraint on LGs should be performed when using IMRT in dogs with sinonasal tumors to reduce the risk of KCS.

© 2020 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.