As thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins (TSI) are a sign of Graves’ disease (GD), measuring TSI titers is becoming increasingly important for GD diagnosis. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a new fully automated TSI immunoassay (Immulite TSI assay) in GD patients and compared it to the third generation thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) electrochemiluminescence assay (Elecsys Anti-TSHR assay). Additionally, clinical characteristics associated with responsiveness to methimazole in patients with newly diagnosed GD were preliminarily explored.
This study involved 324 subjects, comprising patients with untreated GD (GD-UT), Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) patients, GD patients who had been treated for >12 months (GD-T), autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) patients, and healthy subjects (HS). The Immulite TSI and Elecsys Anti-TSHR assay were performed on all samples. According to their responsiveness to methimazole, the GD-UT patients were divided into rapid and slow responder groups, and their clinical characteristics were compared.
A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of GD-UT patients showed that the optimal TSI cut-off value was 0.57 IU/L. Logistic regression revealed that age and initial FT4 and TSI levels in the middle-dose methimazole group were related to a rapid response, while the initial FT4 level, but not TSI, in the high-dose group was also associated with a rapid response.
The clinical diagnostic performance of the Immulite TSI assay for diagnosing GD was comparable to that of the Elecsys Anti-TSHR assay. The initial FT4 and TSI levels can be used as predictors of the responsiveness to methimazole in patients with newly diagnosed GD.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.