Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common heritable kidney disease. ADPKD leads to cysts, kidney enlargement and end-stage renal disease. ADPKD is mainly caused by variants in PKD1 and PKD2, with truncating PKD1 variants causing the most severe phenotype. This study aimed to characterize variants in Danish patients referred for screening of genes related to cystic kidney disease.
147 families were analysed for variants in PKD1, PKD2 and GANAB using next generation sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. If a variant was identified, relatives were analysed for the specific variant using Sanger sequencing.
A pathogenic or possibly pathogenic variant was identified in 87% (103/118) of patients suspected to suffer from ADPKD, according to the requisition form. In total, 112 pathogenic or possibly pathogenic variants were observed, of which 94 were unique; 74 (79%) in PKD1 and 20 (21%) in PKD2, while 41 variants were novel. No variants in GANAB were observed. Ten recurrent variants were observed in 27 (26%) families. These were either PKD2 variants (N=6) or non-truncating PKD1 variants (N=4). Five of these were likely founder variants.
The distribution of pathogenic or possibly pathogenic variants in the Danish ADPKD population is similar to that in other populations, except that recurrent truncating PKD1 variants appear to be rare, i.e. founder variants tend to be variant types associated with a mild phenotype. Patients with a mild phenotype may remain undiagnosed, consequently the frequency of founder variants and prevalence of ADPKD may be underestimated.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.