To clarify the incidence and genetic risk of neonatal-thromboembolism, we conducted a nationwide study exploring the impact of thrombophilia on neonatal-thromboembolism in Japan.
A questionnaire survey was conducted for perinatal centers in Japan, focusing on the clinical expression, genotype, treatment, and outcome of patients who developed thromboembolism within 28 days of birth from 2014 to 2018.
The estimated incidence of neonatal-thromboembolism was 0.39 cases per 10,000 live births. Intracranial lesions and purpura fulminans occurred in 66 and 5 of 77 patients, respectively. Fifty-eight (75.3%) infants presented within three days after birth. Four (5.2%) died, and 14 (18.2%) survived with disability. At the diagnosis, <20% plasma activity of protein C was noted in 16 infants, protein S (in two), and antithrombin (in one). Thirteen genetic tests identified 4 biallelic and 5 monoallelic protein C-variants but no protein S- or antithrombin-variants. Protein C-variants had purpura fulminans (P < .01), ocular bleeding (p<0.01), positive-family history (p=0.01), and death or disability (p=0.03) more frequently than others. Protein C-variants were independently associated with disability (odds ratio: 5.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.16-28.4, p=0.03) but not death. Four biallelic variants had serious thrombotic complications of neurological disability, blindness, and/or amputation. Three monoallelic variants survived without complications. The only protein C-variant death was an extremely preterm heterozygote infant.
Monoallelic protein C-variants had a higher incidence of neonatal-thromboembolism than biallelic variants. Thrombophilia genetic testing should be performed in the setting of neonatal-thromboembolism and low protein C to identify the underlying genetic defect.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.