Urinary tract infection diagnosis and management generally involves a 48-h microbiological delay to obtain the antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results. In the context of multidrug resistance, reducing the time to obtain AST results is an essential factor, allowing for more timely appropriate treatment. We conducted a single-centre prospective study on urinary samples meeting two criteria: significant leukocyturia > 50/mm and exclusive presence of Gram-negative bacilli on direct examination. AST were performed by direct inoculation on Mueller-Hinton Rapid-SIR (MHR-SIR) agar. We evaluated the time to antibiotic adaptation by the antimicrobial stewardship team according to rapid AST results. Patients were subsequently excluded from the study if asymptomatic bacteria were confirmed, or in the absence of clinical data. Seventy patients were included. Mean age of patients was 68.8 years (± 21.3). Empirical antibiotic treatment were mainly based on third generation cephalosporins (n = 33), fluoroquinolones (n = 15), beta-lactamin/beta-lactamase inhibitors (n = 7), fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin (n = 5, each). The average time to obtain results was 7.2 h (± 1.6 h). Adaptation of therapy following MHR-SIR was performed for 29 patients (41%) with early switch to oral antibiotics, de-escalation or escalation in respectively 72.3%, 30%, and 11% of cases. Time saving of MHR-SIR compared with the standard technique was 42.6 (± 16.7) h. This study showed that rapid antibiotic susceptibility test results, using MHR-SIR method directly from urine, can be obtained 40 h earlier than conventional AST. The study also demonstrated significant clinical impact on the selection and reduction of the antibiotic therapy spectrum.
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