Preconditioning using different protocols has been tested to prevent antibody mediated rejection (ABMR) individually for ABO and HLA incompatibility. However, simultaneous presence of both barriers is still less explored. The aim of this study was to report outcomes of institutional desensitization protocol in renal transplant recipients with simultaneous ABO and HLA incompatibility.
This was a retrospective study conducted from October 2015 to December 2018. All patients with a clinical diagnosis of dialysis dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD), who were prospective coexistent HLA and ABO incompatible renal transplant recipients were included in the study. Patients were followed up and graft function and patient survival was assessed at 1 y from the date of transplant.
Median and mode baseline anti-A titers were 64, while median and mode baseline anti-B titers were 256. All recipients were discharged by tenth postoperative day. None of the patients had any bleeding complications. Post transplant infection rate was found to be 20 %. A total of 54 therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) procedures were performed before transplant and 8 were performed after transplant. Graft survival and patient survival was 100 % at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Range and mean follow-up period was 15-42 months and 23 months respectively. Mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 1 y using the CKD-EPI equation was 85.25 ± 13.76 mL/min. Biopsy proven ABMR was observed in one case only which was managed with TPE and immunosuppression.
Simultaneous ABO and HLA incompatibility in renal transplant recipients can be managed successfully with adequate preconditioning and careful monitoring.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Ltd.