The clinical outcomes of multicourse lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) have yet to be validated in a prospective study, and there are a lack of data on allowable composite dosimetry.

Forty-four patients underwent multicourse lung SBRT for recurrent or metachronous NSCLC. The median biologically effective dose (BED10) for the first course and subsequent courses were 132 and 100 Gy, respectively. Patient and treatment characteristics were evaluated to determine the correlation with the development of radiation pneumonitis (RP).

The local control rate was 91%. A total of 13.6% developed a grade 2+ RP, and 4.5% developed a grade 3+ RP, including one grade 5. On univariable analysis, multiple composite dosimetric factors (V5 [proportion of lung structure receiving at least 5 Gy], V10, V20, V40, and mean lung dose) were correlated with the development of RP. When comprised of the first and second course of SBRT, a composite lung V5 of < 30% and > 50% was associated with a 0 and 75% incidence of grade 2+ RP, respectively. We identified no significant correlation on multivariable analysis but observed a strong trend between composite lung V5 and the development of grade 2+ RP (hazard ratio, 1.157; P = .058). Evaluation of multiple clinical factors also identified a significant correlation between the timing of repeat lung SBRT and the development of grade 2+ RP after the second course (P = .0028).

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