Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is an acute neurological condition with unknown global incidence, variable clinical presentation, and prognosis.
To describe a cohort of patients with PRES with a focus on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns and their relationship with short-term clinical outcomes.
Retrospective cohort study. The authors included patients if they were older than 15 years and had a PRES diagnosis on the basis of a positive brain MRI at any time during the in-hospital stay.
Forty-four patients were included in the present analysis. The median age was 57 years (interquartile range, 32.0-68.5) and 70.5% were women. Hypertension (59.1%), history of transplantation (27.3%), previous chemotherapy (27.3%), chronic renal failure (38.6%), and autoimmune disease (15%) were the main comorbid conditions present. The classic triad of seizures, headache, and visual impairment was present in 18.0% of the cases. Eighty-six percent of patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, with 36.0% needing invasive life support. Brain MRI showed a dominant parieto-occipital pattern in 26 patients, whereas cytotoxic edema and bleeding were present in 27.3% and 29.6%, respectively. In-hospital mortality was 11.4%. The median modified Rankin Scale at hospital discharge was 1 (0-2.5). Risk factors associated with low modified Rankin Scale scores were: headache, visual impairment, and parieto-occipital pattern. Decreased level of consciousness and mechanical ventilation requirement were associated with greater discharge disability.
Characteristic symptoms and signs of PRES and classic MRI patterns are associated with better clinical outcomes.