PloS one 2018 03 2813(3) e0193608 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0193608
Few studies have reported the diagnostic variability in patients with a possible usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on high-resolution CT (HRCT) who underwent surgical lung biopsy (SLB), and the prognostic factors for these patients have not been fully evaluated. We retrospectively investigated the frequency of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and prognostic factors in patients with possible UIP pattern on HRCT.
Consecutive patients who had a possible UIP pattern on HRCT, underwent SLB, and had a diagnosis of IIPs before SLB were retrospectively recruited from 10 hospitals. Diagnoses were made based on multidisciplinary discussion using the criteria for current IPF guidelines and multidisciplinary classification for IIPs in each hospital.
179 patients who underwent SLB were enrolled. The diagnoses were IPF in 91 patients (51%), unclassifiable IIPs in 47 (26%), idiopathic NSIP in 18 (10%), and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia in 17 (9%). One-year FVC changes showed significant differences between IPF and non-IPF (-138.6 mL versus 18.2 mL, p = 0.014). Patients with IPF had a worse mortality than those with non-IPF (Logrank test, p = 0.025). Multivariable Cox regression analysis demonstrated that diagnoses of IPF (HR, 2.961; 95% CI, 1.183-7.410; p = 0.02), high modified MRC score (HR, 1.587; 95% CI, 1.003-2.510; p = 0.049), and low %FVC (HR, 0.972; 95% CI, 0.953-0.992; p = 0.005).
About a half of patients with a possible UIP pattern on HRCT had diagnoses other than IPF, and patients with IPF had a worse mortality than those with an alternative diagnosis. We reaffirmed that multidisciplinary discussion is crucial in patients with possible UIP pattern on HRCT.