The study was done to describe the clinical features, visual acuity and causes of ocular morbidity in children under 18 years of age with MAC from North India.
532 children with MAC were examined. Seventeen records were excluded due to incomplete data (0.2%). 515 children (845 eyes) were included: 54.4% males and 45.6% females. MAC was unilateral in 36% and bilateral in 64%. CB, CBMC, CBMO, MO and AO were seen in 26.4%, 31%, 22%, 8% and 12.5% of eyes, respectively. Nystagmus was found in 40%, strabismus in 23%, cataract in 18.7% and retinal detachment in 15%. BCVA of <3/60 was seen in 62.4% eyes. Blindness (BCVA <3/60 in better eye) was seen in 42.8% of bilateral patients. Those with microcornea or microphthalmia with coloboma had worse BCVA (p<0.001). There were regional differences in the type of MAC phenotype presenting to the three institutes.
The study concluded that the MAC group of disorders cause significant ocular morbidity. The presence of microcornea or microphthalmia with coloboma predicts worse BCVA. The variation of the MAC phenotype with the district of origin of the patient raises questions of aetiology and is subject to further studies.