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Clinical symptoms and related risk factors in pulmonary embolism patients and cluster analysis based on these symptoms.

Clinical symptoms and related risk factors in pulmonary embolism patients and cluster analysis based on these symptoms.
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Ji QY, Wang MF, Su CM, Yang QF, Feng LF, Zhao LY, Fang SY, Zhao FH, Li WM,


Ji QY, Wang MF, Su CM, Yang QF, Feng LF, Zhao LY, Fang SY, Zhao FH, Li WM, (click to view)

Ji QY, Wang MF, Su CM, Yang QF, Feng LF, Zhao LY, Fang SY, Zhao FH, Li WM,

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Scientific reports 2017 11 027(1) 14887 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-14888-7
Abstract

Pulmonary embolism (PE) remains largely underdiagnosed due to nonspecific symptoms. This study aims to evaluate typical symptoms of PE patients, their related predictors, and to differentiate typical clusters of patients and principal components of PE symptoms. Clinical data from a total of 551 PE patients between January 2012 and April 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. PE was diagnosed according to the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines. Logistic regression models, system clustering method, and principal component analysis were used to identify potential risk factors, different clusters of the patients, and principal components of PE symptoms. The most common symptoms of PE were dyspnea, cough, and tachypnea in more than 60% of patients. Some combined chronic conditions, laboratory and clinical indicators were found to be related to these clinical symptoms. Our study also suggested that PE is associated with a broad list of symptoms and some PE patients might share similar symptoms, and some PE symptoms were usually cooccurrence. Based on ten symptoms generated from our sample, we classified the patients into five clusters which represent five groups of PE patients during clinical practice, and identified four principal components of PE symptoms. These findings will improve our understanding of clinical symptoms and their potential combinations which are helpful for clinical diagnosis of PE.

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