Lithium is considered the gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) and is used as first-line therapy in prophylaxis and in the treatment of acute mania and depression. However, although lithium is universally accepted as a reference standard in the treatment of BD, its diffusion in clinical practice is still limited. In order to test awareness of the indications for the use of lithium, its methods of clinical use and the monitoring of the main side effects, a survey was carried out among young Italian psychiatrists (less than 40 years old). This survey was followed by an expert meeting in which the results of the survey were analyzed and discussed in order to identify the main critical issues regarding drug management and possible solutions. This work highlights how young Italian psychiatrists have presented a good awareness of the use of lithium in clinical practice. In particular, knowledge of the guidelines regarding safety and attention to strategies that can improve long-term adherence is adequate.