Most of the maxillofacial infections are bacterial infections, and there is a possibility that systemic infections occur by maxillofacial infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of procalcitonin in patients with odontogenic bacterial infections of the maxillofacial region.
We enrolled sixty patients, who were admitted with odontogenic maxillofacial infection from September 2018 to March 2020. White blood cell counts, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin concentrations were evaluated. Sixty patients were classified into two groups, sepsis and non-sepsis groups, based on systemic inflammatory response syndrome. A Student t test was performed to statistically analyze the difference in inflammatory markers between sepsis and non-sepsis groups.
The mean procalcitonin values on admission were 7.24 ng/mL (range, 0.09-37.15 ng/mL) and 0.40 ng/mL (range, 0.02-4.94 ng/mL) in the sepsis group and non-sepsis group, respectively. The procalcitonin values between the two groups showed a significant difference (P < 0.05). The area under the curve of procalcitonin was 0.927 (P < 0.001), and the cutoff value of procalcitonin that maximizes the area under the curve was calculated to be 0.87 ng/mL.
According to our study, routine laboratory tests have insufficient accuracy in diagnosing sepsis syndrome. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to perform the procalcitonin test in patients with maxillofacial infection in addition to the conventional laboratory tests to diagnose the systemic inflammatory condition of the patients.