Both titanium alloy and cobalt-chromium were found to provide clinically meaningful spine deformity adjustments as well as pain, self-image, and disability scores at similar rates in this study. This research shows that both materials are equally successful in correcting AIS, implying that rod selection should be based on material costs, MRI compatibility, and rod profile length. The researchers conducted the first multicenter randomised controlled clinical trial to see if these materials had an impact on spine correction and quality of life (QOL). On September 3, 2012, this experiment was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry under the identifier UMIN000008838 (level of evidence 1).

Female AIS patients (Lenke kinds 1–3, patient age 10–19 years) were recruited and randomised into two cohorts by Japanese researchers. Radiographic examinations were performed on patients at 2 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months to quantify the sagittal and coronal correction (Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis, rib hump, and apical vertebral rotation). Both the Ti and CoCr cohorts improved significantly in spinal correction, including the Cobb angle, thoracic kyphosis, and rib hump size, at the final follow-up. The correction rates for the Ti and CoCr groups were 68.4 percent and 67.1 percent, respectively. Both treatments (Ti and CoCr) were effective in producing clinically meaningful spine adjustments and generated similar results.

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