Since coffee is one of the most consumed beverages across the globe, even the slightest of health outcomes could have a population-wide effect. Besides, the health outcomes of coffee consumption have remained to be controversial. The objective of this study is to assess the association between coffee consumption and multiple health outcomes.

This umbrella review and meta-analyses included information from the datasets of Embase, CINAHL, PubMed, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The meta-analysis of all the studies examined the relationship between coffee consumption and any potential health outcomes. The primary outcome of the study was health outcomes associated with coffee consumption.

The findings suggested that coffee consumption was associated with less harm and more benefit. The largest relative risk reduction at intakes of 3-4 cups a day versus none was 0.83 for all-cause mortality, 0.81 for cardiovascular mortality, and 0.85 for cardiovascular disease. Higher consumption of coffee was associated with an 18% lower risk of incident cancer and neurological, metabolic, and liver conditions. Coffee consumption was associated with a higher risk when paired with smoking or when consumed during pregnancy.

The research concluded that consuming three to four cups of coffee was associated with an overall lower risk of health outcomes like mortality, cancer, and cardiovascular disease.