Progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) caused by retinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury can lead to irreversible vision impairment, with neuroinflammatory responses playing an important role in this process. COG1410, a mimetic peptide of apolipoprotein E, has demonstrated protective potential in the central nervous system, but its effects on retinal IR injury remain unexplored. In this study, we established a mouse model of retinal IR injury to investigate the effects of COG1410 on retinal microglia and RGCs. We observed CD16/32-marked and CD206-marked microglia and RGCs using immunofluorescence staining, detected the expression of inflammatory factors by PCR, and evaluated retinal apoptosis with TUNEL staining. We further investigated the potential mechanism by detecting the expression of key proteins via western blot. The results reveal that COG1410 decreased the number of CD16/32-marked microglia and increased the number of CD206-marked microglia, alleviated the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α, and reduced the loss of RGCs by inhibiting the mitochondrial-related apoptotic pathway. COG1410 was found to increase the expression of ERK1/2 and Nr4a1 but decrease the expression of NF-κB. The expression of TREM2 showed an increasing trend after COG1410 administration, but it was not statistically significant. In conclusion, COG1410 regulates microglial states and protects RGCs in retinal IR injury, showing promising potential for the treatment of eye diseases.Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Ltd.