This cross-sectional study investigated associations between cognitive dietary restraint (CDR), energy, macronutrient and food group intake, menstrual function, and bone density in female adolescent endurance runners. Participants were forty female adolescent endurance runners. The independent variable was CDR, as assessed by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Runners with CDR subscale scores ≥11 were classified with elevated CDR. The main outcomes measured were dietary intake measured by 24-hour recall for 7 days, menstrual history, and bone mineral density (BMD). Twelve of 40 participants (30.0%) met criteria for elevated CDR. Compared to runners with normal CDR, runners with elevated CDR scores reported consuming lower energy (kcal/kg/day) (37.5 ± 8.6 vs. 44.0 ± 9.6, p = 0.052), lower carbohydrate (g/kg/day) (5.3 ± 1.3 vs. 6.3 ± 1.3, p = 0.042), more fiber (g/day) (24.9 ± 6.7 vs. 20.0 ± 5.3, p = 0.018), more servings of fruit (3.3 ± 1.4 vs. 1.9 ± 1.2, p = 0.003), more servings of vegetables (2.7 ± 1.4 vs. 1.7 ± 0.7, p = 0.004), and fewer servings of grain (7.6 ± 2.4 vs. 9.8 ± 2.4, p = 0.009) per day. Runners with elevated CDR exhibited significantly lower lumbar spine BMD Z-scores (adjusting for BMI) (-0.78 ± 0.19 vs. -0.22 ± 0.12, p = 0.016) than runners with normal CDR. Menstrual history did not significantly differ based on CDR status. Elevated CDR may increase risk of dietary patterns associated with consuming inadequate levels of energy, key nutrients, and developing low BMD in endurance runners. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01059968.
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