Knowledge is needed about squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) risk in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) using contemporary immunosuppressive regimens.
Evaluate risk of cSCC in relation to medications used by SOTRs.
The cohort and nest case-control study included 3,308 SOTRs and 65,883 persons without transplantation during 2009-2019. Incident cSCC was identified from pathology data and medications from pharmacy data. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards analysis, with voriconazole examined as a time-dependent variable.
The annual incidence of cSCC was 1.69% in SOTRs and 0.30% in persons without transplantation. The adjusted HR of cSCC associated with lung transplant was 14.83 (CI 9.85-22.33) for lung and 6.53 to 10.69 for other organs. Risk in Latinx persons was higher than in other non-white groups. Among lung recipients, the HR was 1.14 for each month of voriconazole use (95% CI: 1.04-1.26). Azathioprine use for ≥7 months, relating to mycophenolate mofetil intolerance, was associated with 4.22-fold increased risk of cSCC (95% CI 1.90-9.40). Belatacept and other immunsuppressive medications were not associated with risk.
The number of events was somewhat small.
Knowledge of risks and benefits in diverse patients can translate to care improvements.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.