Human genetics influence a range of pathological and clinical phenotypes in respiratory infections; however, the contributions of disease modifiers remain underappreciated. We exploited the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse genetic-reference population to map genetic modifiers that affect the severity of lung infection. Screening for respiratory infection in a cohort of 39 CC lines exhibits distinct disease phenotypes ranging from complete resistance to lethal disease. Based on major changes in the survival times, a quantitative-trait locus (QTL) was mapped on murine chromosome 3 to the genomic interval of Mb 110.4 to 120.5. Within this locus, composed of 31 protein-coding genes, two candidate genes, namely, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase () and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (), were identified according to the level of genome-wide significance and disease gene prioritization. Functional validation of the gene by pharmacological targeting in C57BL/6NCrl mice confirmed its relevance in pathophysiology. However, in a cohort of Canadian patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) disease, regional genetic-association analysis of the syntenic human locus on chromosome 1 (Mb 97.0 to 105.0) identified two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10875080 and rs11582736) annotated to the gene that were significantly associated with age at first infection. Thus, there is evidence that both genes might be implicated in this disease. Our results demonstrate that the discovery of murine modifier loci may generate information that is relevant to human disease progression. Respiratory infection caused by is one of the most critical health burdens worldwide. People affected by infection include patients with a weakened immune system, such as those with cystic fibrosis (CF) genetic disease or non-CF bronchiectasis. Disease outcomes range from fatal pneumonia to chronic life-threatening infection and inflammation leading to the progressive deterioration of pulmonary function. The development of these respiratory infections is mediated by multiple causes. However, the genetic factors underlying infection susceptibility are poorly known and difficult to predict. Our study employed novel approaches and improved mouse disease models to identify genetic modifiers that affect the severity of lung infection. We identified candidate genes to enhance our understanding of infection in humans and provide a proof of concept that could be exploited for other human pathologies mediated by bacterial infection.Copyright © 2020 Lorè et al.
Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) stimulation enhances mitochondrial metabolism and mitigates reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial injury.
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