Scientific reports 2018 03 218(1) 4980 doi 10.1038/s41598-018-23344-z
Little is known about the impact of comorbidities on multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes. We aimed to examine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), alcohol misuse, and smoking on MDR/XDRTB treatment outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Registrar and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews as per PRISMA guidelines. Eligible studies were identified and treatment outcome data were extracted. We performed a meta-analysis to generate a pooled relative risk (RR) for unsuccessful outcome in MDR/XDRTB treatment by co-morbidity. From 2457 studies identified, 48 reported on 18,257 participants, which were included in the final analysis. Median study population was 235 (range 60-1768). Pooled RR of unsuccessful outcome was higher in people living with HIV (RR = 1.41 [95%CI: 1.15-1.73]) and in people with alcohol misuse (RR = 1.45 [95%CI: 1.21-1.74]). Outcomes were similar in people with diabetes or in people that smoked. Data was insufficient to examine outcomes in exclusive XDRTB or CKD cohorts. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, alcohol misuse and HIV were associated with higher pooled OR of an unsuccessful outcome in MDR/XDRTB treatment. Further research is required to understand the role of comorbidities in driving unsuccessful treatment outcomes.