Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an effective mode of consolidation therapy for children with high-risk acute leukemia. In high-income countries, match sibling donor (MSD) and match unrelated donor (MUD) HSCT have similar outcomes, but data are scarce in upper-middle-income countries. Our objective was to compare MSD and MUD HSCT outcomes for children with acute leukemia in Argentina.
This was a single-institution retrospective cohort study. We included children with acute leukemia who underwent HSCT with either MSD or MUD between 2014 and 2019.
The study included 45 patients who received MSD (n=27) or MUD (n=18) for acute leukemia. Event-free survival was not significantly different between MSD (62.3±10.7%) versus MUD (54.2±15.0%; P=0.54) at 5 years. Similarly, there was no significant difference in 5-year overall survival between MSD (71.9±9.8%) versus MUD (65.1±13.5%; P=0.38). The cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality (P=0.31), cumulative incidence of relapse (P=0.99), and proportion with acute-graft-versus-host disease (P=0.76) and chronic-graft-versus-host disease (P=0.68) were also not significantly different.
In Argentina, we did not show significant differences in outcomes between MSD and MUD HSCT for children with high-risk leukemia. Future work should focus on strategies to reduce the relapse risk in children with high-risk leukemia in upper-middle-income countries.

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