Pits and Fissures are recognized as being highly susceptible to caries. Pit and fissure sealants are one of the best methods of preventing caries as it occludes the fissures and pits from the accumulation of plaque and cariogenic microflora. There are different methods of cleaning and preparing occlusal pits and fissures for preventing caries which helps in alleviating oral health status of paediatric population.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the microleakage of pit and fissure sealants after using five different preparation techniques, namely: A) Conventional technique using pumice prophylaxis, B) enameloplasty with round carbide bur, C) enameloplasty with fissurotomy bur, D) air polisher, and E) air abrasion.
The study was conducted on 50 caries-free premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose. These teeth were randomly assigned to five groups, 10 teeth in each for receiving fissure sealant after different surface preparation; thermocycling and sectioning of samples were performed and microleakage was assessed under a stereomicroscope after methylene blue dye immersion.
The results of air abrasion groups were significantly superior with “0” microleakage when compared to all other groups followed by round bur, fissurotomy bur, air polisher and pumice prophylaxis.
To improve the marginal adaptation of the sealants, minimally invasive methods are the most favoured methods of occlusal preparation. This study promises to show positive results for fissure sealants which are likely to play an important role in caries prevention and techniques that are intended to protect caries susceptible surfaces.